This has fuelled fears of a “no deal 2.0” that the UK would leave the EU with a withdrawal agreement, but would not conclude a trade deal in time. This would involve many economic, political and social problems identical to those of leaving the EU without a withdrawal agreement. The withdrawal agreement provides for a transitional period until 31 December 2020, during which time the UK will remain in the internal market, to ensure the smooth flow of trade until a long-term relationship is concluded. If no agreement is reached by then, the UK will leave the single market without a trade deal on 1 January 2021. The withdrawal agreement is closely linked to a non-binding political declaration on future relations between the EU and the UK. The British government is becoming more and more provocative. This weekend, the chief Brexit negotiator, David Frost, said he was not afraid to escape trade negotiations with the European Union – and that was just the beginning. On Monday, Prime Minister Boris Johnson set a deadline of mid-October for an agreement between Britain and the Bloc. If there were none, he said, the UK would be preparing for a future without a deal. The growing audacity on behalf of British officials comes ahead of the planned publication of an internal market law that would undermine the fundamental principles of the recent withdrawal pact. The behaviour could be interpreted as bluffing if it were not the Northern Ireland Protocol and the fact that Britain might no longer be able to comply with certain aspects of the withdrawal agreement.
Immediately after the announcement of a revised withdrawal agreement on October 17, 2019, Labour, the Liberal Democrats and the DUP said they could not support the new agreement.  On 15 November 2018, the day after the agreement was presented and the support of the British government cabinet, several members of the government resigned, including Dominic Raab, Secretary of State for leaving the European Union.  The withdrawal agreement is accompanied by a political declaration, a non-binding document setting out aspirations for the future relationship between the UK and the EU. Tory MPs would also vote for whether they voted in favour of the withdrawal deal, as they will come as a package. Boris Johnson has officially signed the EU withdrawal agreement and smiles, as he described it as a “fantastic moment” for the country. Boris Johnson has signed the Brexit withdrawal agreement in Downing Street. Johnson said he would not use the option he has in the withdrawal agreement to extend that transition period. The Prime Minister said the 11-month time available without a new extension was “ample” time to reach a comprehensive agreement. “As part of the withdrawal agreement, the UK must inform Brussels of all decisions on state aid affecting the Northern Ireland goods market and require the province`s businesses to deposit customs papers when sending goods to the rest of the UK,” the Financial Times reported on Monday. On the issue of the Irish border, there is a protocol on Northern Ireland (the “backstop”) which is attached to the agreement and establishes a position of withdrawal which will only come into force in the absence of effective alternative provisions before the expiry of the transition period. In this case, the UK will eclipse the EU`s common external tariff and Northern Ireland will stick to aspects of the internal market until such an event is carried out.
Neither party can unilaterally withdraw from this customs union. The aim of this backstop agreement is to avoid a “hard” border in Ireland, where customs controls are needed.  “There is no point in thinking about chronologies that go beyond this point,” he will say.