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Despite these concerns, the solution is not a return to protectionism. Consumers in developing countries have benefited from international trade through access to a wider variety of cheaper products. International trade has also improved industry and business performance in these countries by redistributing economic activity to less productive enterprises, new technologies, access to cheaper and larger types of inputs, innovation and the elimination of distortions and inefficiencies (Goldberg and Pavcnik 2016). As growing concerns about inequality threaten past liberalizations and trade agreements, scientists and policy makers must address the challenges posed by the unequal distribution of globalization`s gains. Many developing countries have undergone significant changes in trade policy ranging from import liberalization to improved access to export markets. This allowed researchers to study the impact of trade through export and import on income and employment opportunities. The result is a large and growing research group studying the impact of international trade on income inequality in developing countries (Goldberg and Pavcnik 2007, 2016, Pavcnik 2017). According to Hasselbach, Europe is concerned about increased trade in Africa with Asia, particularly China. Africa`s share of world trade has steadily increased from $277 billion (2.3%) 2001 to about $1 trillion (4.6%) 2011, according to the UN Conference on Trade and Development.

While Europe remains Africa`s largest trading partner, trade with Africa with Asia increased by 22% during this period, while trade with Europe increased by only 15%. In addition, Europe`s contribution to industrial imports to Africa increased from 32% in 2002 to 23% in 2011, while Asia`s share rose from 13% to 22% over the same period. A third, perhaps more surprising, finding of this literature is that the negative effects of competition on imports on income and employment are persistent and may increase over time. The lack of emigration can persist for up to 20 years after the implementation of a trade reform (Dix-Carneiro and Kovak 2017). Two factors contribute to an increased response and a slow decline in labour demand over time. First, agglomerate economies (i.e. economies in which individuals and businesses mingle in industrial clusters and cities) reinforce the initial negative effects of import liberalization on local labour demand. Second, capital is slowly adjusting and gradually moving away from disadvantaged regions and sectors, resulting in relative demand for labour continuing to decline over time. The unequal treaty is the name given by the Chinese to a series of treaties signed between the Qing Dynasty and various Western powers, Russia and the Empire of Japan in the 19th and early 20th centuries. The agreements, often concluded after a military defeat, included unilateral conditions that required China to cede land, pay reparations, open ports or grant extraterritorial privileges to foreign citizens. [1] Individuals would be expected to move over time from disadvantaged areas to economic opportunities, the effect of decoupling income gaps.

But in reality, there is an imperfect interregional mobility of workers. Thus, five to nine years after severe negative trade shocks, the uneven effects persist, in part because of the absence of exodus. These agreements strengthen a country`s political base, ensure security and can even guarantee food security between neighbours and trading partners by enforcing price settings, quotas and tariffs. Fourth, the geographically concentrated effects of import competition can have longer effects by influencing the education and labour choices of the next generation of children (Edmonds et al.

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